Multicultural Education Timeline

1. Alliance for Equity in Higher Education (Cynthia)

Fact: The Alliance for Equity in Higher Education, a program managed by IHEP, was established in 1999 by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU), and the National Association For Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO) to represent the shared interests of Tribal Colleges and Universities, Hispanic-Serving Institutions, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities.
Details: Combined, these minority-serving institutions (MSIs) represented by AIHEC, HACU and NAFEO, educate more than one-third of all students of color in the United States. MSIs disproportionately address the needs of low-income, minority students while contributing significantly to generating a highly skilled workforce, developing civic and community responsibility, and producing citizens who are exceptionally attuned to the increasingly diverse country in which we live.
Dates: 1999
URL: http://www.ihep.org/programs/the-alliance.cfm

2. The Connecticut Asylum at Hartford for the Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons opens in 1817 (Cynthia)

Fact:
Of the first hundred pupils admitted to the school --
· 46 were born deaf.
· 30 became deaf at two years or under.
· 7 became deaf from three to eight years of age inclusive.
· 0 became deaf at over eight years of age.
· 17 unknown at what age deafness occurred.
· 1 had one deaf parent.
· 28 came from 23 families in which there were forty other deaf children,
· 0 was reported as having parents related by blood,
· In one family represented there were 6 deaf-mute children,
· In one family represented there were two deaf-mute sons and one deaf-mute daughter who were married before this school was established.
· In another family there were 4 deaf-mute children.
Of the last hundred pupils admitted --
· 41 were born deaf.
· 26 became deaf at two years of age or under.
· 22 became deaf from three to eight years of age inclusive.
· 1 became deaf at over eight years of age.
· 10 unknown at what age deafness occurred.
· 5 have deaf parents, and in these families there are thirteen other deaf children and two hearing children -- 12 of these deaf children coming from two families.
· 9 children, having hearing parents unrelated by blood, come from seven families having more than one deaf- mute child -- the whole number of deaf children in these families being16, and the number of hearing children 24.
· 2 children come from families in which the parents are cousins, and the two families together have six deaf-mute children and fifteen hearing children.
Details: It is the first permanent school for the deaf in the U.S. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc are the school's co-founders. In 1864, Thomas Gaullaudet's son, Edward Miner Gallaudet, helps to start Gallaudet University, the first college specifically for deaf students.
Dates: 1817
URL: http://www.disabilitymuseum.org/lib/docs/1371.htm (gives citation information)

3. Alvarez vs. the Board of Trustees of the Lemon Grove (California) School District (Cynthia)

Facts: This was the first successful school desegregation court case in the United States. The local court forbid the school district from placing Mexican-American children in a separate "Americanization" school.
Details: In 1931, Mexican families angry because their children were barred from attending the Lemon Grove Grammar School sued the school district's board of trustees. The board wanted to send the children, many of whom were U.S.-born, to an “Americanization school,” which had been hastily assembled in a building that the families called the “caballeriza,” or “the stable.” A local judge ruled the board lacked the authority to segregate Mexican-American students and ordered that they be allowed to return to the grammar school.
Date: 1931
URL: http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/86spring/lemongrove.htm